Asthma is a recurring condition in which certain stimuli cause the airways to narrow for a while so that makes a person having difficulty breathing.
Although asthma can occur at any age, but more often occurs in children, especially in children from the age of 5 years. Some children suffer from asthma until their adulthood. Most children who have asthma can still interact with its environment, except in the event of an asthma attack. Only a few children who are resistant to drugs to prevent asthma and need daily to be able to do sports and play normally.
For unclear reasons, children with asthma are usually reacting to certain stimuli (triggers). There are many factors that cause asthma attacks, but on each child usually causes (triggers) is different. Several factors trigger asthma attacks, namely indoor irritants, such as strong odors, irritant fumes (perfume, tobacco smoke); pollution from outside: cold air, exercise; emotional disturbance; respiratory infections due to viruses, and various kinds of substances which make children become allergic, such as animal dander, dust, pollen, and mold.
All of these triggers produce a similar reaction; certain cells in the airways release chemical substances. These substances cause the airways to become inflamed and swollen and stimulate the muscle cells in the airway walls to contract. Reduce stimulation with chemicals to increase production of mucus in the airways, making the spilling of cells lining the airways, and widen the muscle cells in the airway wall. Each reaction is triggered to the smaller airways suddenly (asthma attacks).In most children, the airway back to normal in between asthma attacks.
Doctors do not fully understand why some children suffer from asthma, but a number of known risk factors. A child with one parent with asthma has an increased risk of 25% have asthma, if both parents have asthma, the risk increased to 50%. Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy are more likely to develop asthma.
Children in urban environments are more likely to have asthma, particularly if they come from lower socioeconomic groups. Although asthma affects a high percentage of black children compared with white children, the role of genetic influence in the increase of asthma is controversial because black children are also more likely to live in urban areas. Children are faced with high concentrations of allergens, like dust or cockroach droppings, at an early age are more likely to suffer from asthma. Children who suffer from bronchiolitis at an early age often wheezing with advanced viral infection. Wheezing first sound can be interpreted as asthma, but children are not more likely than others to have asthma during adolescence.
When airways constrict during an asthma attack, the child can be difficulty breathing, accompanied by his trademark sound wheezing. Wheezing is a loud noise that sounded high when the child breathes. Not all asthma attacks wheezing produce sounds, however. Mild asthma, particularly in young children, could only produce a cough; some older children with mild asthma tend to cough only during exercise or when exposed to cold air.
Also, children with acute asthma may not wheeze because of too little air flow to generate noise. In acute asthma, breathing becomes difficult sincerely, sound wheezing usually becomes tighter, and the child is breathing rapidly and with greater effort, and ribs prominent when the child is breathing (inspiration). With acute attacks, the child gasping for breath and sat upright, leaning forward. Sweating and pale skin or blue.
Children with frequent acute attacks sometimes have a slow development, but their growth is usually chasing another child in adulthood.
A doctor suspected asthma in children who have wheezing repetitive, particularly when family members are known to have asthma or allergies. Children who wheezing events can often be tested for other disorders, such as fiber or gastro esophageal recurrent cysts. Older children sometimes perform lung function tests, although the stout children lung function is normal between relapses.
One of half or more of children with asthma control. Those with more severe disease were more likely to have asthma as a teenager.
Older children or teenagers can recognize asthma often have to use a peak flow meter, a small tool that records how fast a person can blow air-to measure the level of airway disorders. This tool can be used as an objective assessment of the condition of the child.
Treatment of a severe attack consists of opening the airways (bronchodilation) and stops the inflammation. Various kinds of inhaled medications to open airways (bronchodilator). This particular example is albuterol and ipratropium. Older children and teenagers are usually able to use these drugs using metered dose inhalation device. Children older than 8 years or often find it easy to use inhalation with a spacer or buffer room installed. Infants and very young children can sometimes use a spacer when inhaled and infant size masks fitted.
Children who do not use inhalation devices can receive inhaled drugs at home through a mask mounted on a nebulizer, a small tool that generates steam cure using compressed air. Tool inhalation and nebulizer are equally effective at removing the drug. Albuterol can also be used with the mouth, although this activity was not much more successful than inhalation and are usually used only in infants who did not use the nebulizer. Children who are experiencing severe attacks can also be administered via oral corticosteroids.
Children with severe attacks were treated in hospital by providing a bronchodilator in the nebulizer at least every 20 minutes at first. Sometimes the doctor uses an injection of epinephrine, a bronchodilator, in children with severe attacks if they cannot breathe well enough on the steam nebulizer. Doctors usually give intravenous corticosteroids to children who have severe attacks.
Children who suffer from mild asthma, with infrequent attacks typically use medication only during the attack. Children with frequent or severe attacks also need to use drugs even when they are not under attack.
Other drugs used, based on the frequency and severity of attacks in children. Children with infrequent attacks that are not too bad usually use inhaled drugs, such as cromolyn or nedocromil, or a low dose of inhaled corticosteroids daily to help prevent attacks. These drugs prevent the release of chemicals that harm the airways, and reduce inflammation. Preparing to use the old theophylline is an inexpensive option for prevention in some children.