Living With Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

In a world that has been consistently and admirably trying to better itself for people with disabilities, the knowledge among the general population about intellectual and developmental disabilities is still remarkably limited. For those who are relatively new to these terms, here is a quick overview. “Developmental disabilities” is a term that collectively encompasses all kinds of physical and mental disabilities, including Downs Syndrome, epilepsy, cerebral palsy, autism and all kinds of degenerative neurological diseases. “Intellectual Disabilities,” also often referred by an older and now unofficial term, “Mental Retardation” is simply a branch of developmental disabilities and is scientifically defined as having an IQ score lower than 70. It can range from a mild learning or speech disorder to a more severe diagnosis such as Autism, Williams syndrome or Fragile X syndrome.

History has been particularly unkind towards disabled people and stories of their harsh and often tortuous treatment will shock even the toughest of readers. For centuries, developmental disabilities were looked down upon as a social stigma, or worse, an unacceptable and repulsive disease. While the world today is far more understanding of disabled people, such people still find themselves having to face several barriers and obstructions on the path to freedom and respect. In spite of several difficulties, our generation has been witness to some great personalities who have, with their strength and determination, overcome their developmental disability and created extraordinary lives for themselves. Perhaps the greatest scientist of all time, Stephen Hawking, was diagnosed with a degenerative neurological disease called ALS at a very young age. Actors Charles Burke, Warwick Davis and Tom Cruise have had to overcome their developmental disabilities on their path to success and so did some celebrated artists such as Walt Disney and Frida Kahlo.

Transcendent singer Susan Boyle suffers from Asperger’s Syndrome and she had once said about her struggles, “I want to turn my disability into an ability.”

As we have learnt from these iron-willed personalities, nothing is impossible, and there is no reason for a developmental disability to hold anyone back. It may make life seem unfairly difficult, but several organizations exist today that try to provide the support and encouragement such people require turning their disabilities into abilities. Every person should be able to live life fully, if not extraordinarily, and we all deserve to live with a certain degree of freedom and respect. Dignity is is not impossible, even for the developmentally disabled, and the world today is striving hard to raise the standards of living for such people. Organizations for the betterment of the developmentally disabled include experts or simply ordinary people who wish to make a difference in the world. Organizations and individual employees are dedicated to creating a better world for the people of different abilities. People equipped with the necessary knowledge, awareness and training, work towards creating an environment that help empower others.

How To Know When The Alternators Bad And Take It Out

Alternators are parts on a car that are absolutely necessary for charging your battery. Back in older times they used to be called generators, but now alternators are parts that power your battery when the car is running and allow your car to charge up when it needs to. If the alternator is bad your car’s not going to get the charge it needs and as a result the battery’s going to go dead pretty quickly.

How To Diagnose A Bad Alternator

If the alternator’s bad your battery light’s going to go on pretty fast. This is a red light that’s shaped like and that looks like a battery. This indicates that your battery’s not getting charged with new power when the cars running and pretty soon your car will sap all of it’s power. Even if you get a jump, it’ll go dead soon after if it’s the alternator because there’s nothing charging the car any longer.

While seeing if the battery light on the dashboard is on is a good way to check if it’s the alternator, probably the best way is to get a jump and see if the car continues to run and charge up. If the car’s battery dies again soon after while it’s running, it’s very likely the alternator, if not, it may be something else.

Removing The Alternator And Getting Ready To Install A New One

In order to replace or rebuild the alternator, you’ll have to take it out. This might seem like a daunting task but it can actually be very easy if you know what you’re doing. In some cars the alternator is at the top of everything, and there’s no need to take anything else out or move anything before you decide to take the alternator out. In other cars the alternator is under many other parts, in these cases it’s very important to keep a log of what goes where and make sure that you remember how you removed everything that’s blocking your access to the alternator and of course how it goes back in.

When taking out the alternator, loosen the belt by loosening the belt tensioner, if you have a serpentine belt. Once the serpentine belt is loose, if you have one, then remove the bolts that are holding the alternator in by turning them counterclockwise with a fitting rachet and socket set or a box wrench. Once the bolts are loose and have been removed, sometimes the alternators still stuck in place just from being there for so long. Use some old fashion strength and wiggle it out, pull until it comes out and use some WD-40 or other lubricating fluid if necessary to get the old alternator out.

Deciding the Course of Action for an Aromatherapy Course

Aromatherapy has transformed itself from being a traditional practice to a booming industry. It is popular in almost every continent and many people are aware of its nature and application. The number of people practicing aromatherapy in their homes is increasing rapidly. The booming industry has brought into spotlight aromatherapy career opportunities and with that a requirement for well-trained and dedicated people.

Aromatherapy courses are available anywhere and everywhere from the natural food store to the internet. However, as of now, there is no standardized curriculum for aromatherapy, so the content and quality of the classes varies widely, which means that before you decide on which aromatherapy course to take up, you need to do a thorough research.

Learning aromatherapy is a time consuming process but the length of aromatherapy course varies greatly. Before deciding on which aromatherapy course to take up, one should keep the following things in mind:

Do your research

The first and foremost requirement is a little research and an overview of what aromatherapy is. Find out about the risks and benefits of aromatherapy and how it is practiced. Also familiarize yourself with terms and names that you come across frequently and make a list of questions that you have in mind.

Keep in mind your goal

Next, decide your goal in taking an aromatherapy course. Do you want to make your own essential oils? Is it a simple curiosity or do you want to become a professional practitioner? Once you are clear about your goals you may require more research.


It is very important to know who will be teaching the aromatherapy course and the qualifications of that person. What is the level of training and experience the person has in aromatherapy?


Find out what the aromatherapy course will cover and in what detail. Which are the smells that you will you learn about? Will you learn about the effects and the safety concerns for each of them? How to blend and use them and in what concentration? Can they be used for pregnant women, children and the elderly? Make sure that course covers most of the things you want to learn.


Is it a formal course of study with classes and tests? If yes, will a certificate be provided and will the same have recognition? Is it an informal course that will provide you basic overview about aromatherapy? Make sure you understand what you will have to do to complete the course.

Some Ways to Take an Aromatherapy Course


Self study is the simplest and the most common way for individuals to begin expanding their aromatherapy knowledge. Self study involves going through various books and websites that provide information on aromatherapy and then practicing the information that one has assimilated. Self-study is a wonderful method for introducing aromatherapy into your lifestyle. However, self-study may not teach you everything you wish to learn.


Networking involves exchanging the knowledge and experience that you have with others. Networking can occur anywhere and with anyone as aromatherapy has become very popular today. Lots of people, among your friends or local community may be aromatherapy fans and you can join such clubs on internet also. This gives you opportunities to share aromatherapy information and it also provides answers to some of your specific questions. Though people have good intentions, but sometimes, the information supplied may not be safe or accurate.

Local Classes

Aromatherapy classes have sprung up everywhere and vary greatly in what they teach, just like the educational and professional background of the instructor’s.Some classes provide you only introductory information while others give you a handbook and allow you to make a couple of recipes during the class.


Seminars range from half-day to several-day aromatherapy events. Some seminars may be sponsored, these are usually held by local aromatherapy businesses and are conducted by a professional aroma therapist. Seminars may also be hosted directly in affiliation with institutions that present distance learning courses. Just like local classes, seminars also vary greatly in what they teach and cover.

Comprehensive Aromatherapy Programs and Courses via Distance Learning

Lately, schools have started offering comprehensive aromatherapy classes. Since on-site attendance is not possible for many, numerous schools and educators offer distance learning courses. Distance learning courses offer the student the ability to learn a comprehensive aromatherapy curriculum at his or her own pace.

Recognizing the Symptoms of Asthma in Children and Treatment of Asthma

Asthma is a recurring condition in which certain stimuli cause the airways to narrow for a while so that makes a person having difficulty breathing.

Although asthma can occur at any age, but more often occurs in children, especially in children from the age of 5 years. Some children suffer from asthma until their adulthood. Most children who have asthma can still interact with its environment, except in the event of an asthma attack. Only a few children who are resistant to drugs to prevent asthma and need daily to be able to do sports and play normally.

Asthma Causes

For unclear reasons, children with asthma are usually reacting to certain stimuli (triggers). There are many factors that cause asthma attacks, but on each child usually causes (triggers) is different. Several factors trigger asthma attacks, namely indoor irritants, such as strong odors, irritant fumes (perfume, tobacco smoke); pollution from outside: cold air, exercise; emotional disturbance; respiratory infections due to viruses, and various kinds of substances which make children become allergic, such as animal dander, dust, pollen, and mold.

All of these triggers produce a similar reaction; certain cells in the airways release chemical substances. These substances cause the airways to become inflamed and swollen and stimulate the muscle cells in the airway walls to contract. Reduce stimulation with chemicals to increase production of mucus in the airways, making the spilling of cells lining the airways, and widen the muscle cells in the airway wall. Each reaction is triggered to the smaller airways suddenly (asthma attacks).In most children, the airway back to normal in between asthma attacks.

Risk Factors

Doctors do not fully understand why some children suffer from asthma, but a number of known risk factors. A child with one parent with asthma has an increased risk of 25% have asthma, if both parents have asthma, the risk increased to 50%. Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy are more likely to develop asthma.

Children in urban environments are more likely to have asthma, particularly if they come from lower socioeconomic groups. Although asthma affects a high percentage of black children compared with white children, the role of genetic influence in the increase of asthma is controversial because black children are also more likely to live in urban areas. Children are faced with high concentrations of allergens, like dust or cockroach droppings, at an early age are more likely to suffer from asthma. Children who suffer from bronchiolitis at an early age often wheezing with advanced viral infection. Wheezing first sound can be interpreted as asthma, but children are not more likely than others to have asthma during adolescence.

Asthma Symptoms

When airways constrict during an asthma attack, the child can be difficulty breathing, accompanied by his trademark sound wheezing. Wheezing is a loud noise that sounded high when the child breathes. Not all asthma attacks wheezing produce sounds, however. Mild asthma, particularly in young children, could only produce a cough; some older children with mild asthma tend to cough only during exercise or when exposed to cold air.

Also, children with acute asthma may not wheeze because of too little air flow to generate noise. In acute asthma, breathing becomes difficult sincerely, sound wheezing usually becomes tighter, and the child is breathing rapidly and with greater effort, and ribs prominent when the child is breathing (inspiration). With acute attacks, the child gasping for breath and sat upright, leaning forward. Sweating and pale skin or blue.

Children with frequent acute attacks sometimes have a slow development, but their growth is usually chasing another child in adulthood.


A doctor suspected asthma in children who have wheezing repetitive, particularly when family members are known to have asthma or allergies. Children who wheezing events can often be tested for other disorders, such as fiber or gastro esophageal recurrent cysts. Older children sometimes perform lung function tests, although the stout children lung function is normal between relapses.

One of half or more of children with asthma control. Those with more severe disease were more likely to have asthma as a teenager.

Asthma Treatment

Older children or teenagers can recognize asthma often have to use a peak flow meter, a small tool that records how fast a person can blow air-to measure the level of airway disorders. This tool can be used as an objective assessment of the condition of the child.

Treatment of a severe attack consists of opening the airways (bronchodilation) and stops the inflammation. Various kinds of inhaled medications to open airways (bronchodilator). This particular example is albuterol and ipratropium. Older children and teenagers are usually able to use these drugs using metered dose inhalation device. Children older than 8 years or often find it easy to use inhalation with a spacer or buffer room installed. Infants and very young children can sometimes use a spacer when inhaled and infant size masks fitted.

Children who do not use inhalation devices can receive inhaled drugs at home through a mask mounted on a nebulizer, a small tool that generates steam cure using compressed air. Tool inhalation and nebulizer are equally effective at removing the drug. Albuterol can also be used with the mouth, although this activity was not much more successful than inhalation and are usually used only in infants who did not use the nebulizer. Children who are experiencing severe attacks can also be administered via oral corticosteroids.

Children with severe attacks were treated in hospital by providing a bronchodilator in the nebulizer at least every 20 minutes at first. Sometimes the doctor uses an injection of epinephrine, a bronchodilator, in children with severe attacks if they cannot breathe well enough on the steam nebulizer. Doctors usually give intravenous corticosteroids to children who have severe attacks.

Children who suffer from mild asthma, with infrequent attacks typically use medication only during the attack. Children with frequent or severe attacks also need to use drugs even when they are not under attack.

Other drugs used, based on the frequency and severity of attacks in children. Children with infrequent attacks that are not too bad usually use inhaled drugs, such as cromolyn or nedocromil, or a low dose of inhaled corticosteroids daily to help prevent attacks. These drugs prevent the release of chemicals that harm the airways, and reduce inflammation. Preparing to use the old theophylline is an inexpensive option for prevention in some children.

The Ring Birth Control As a Type of Contraception

The birth control ring is a thin, flexible ring about five centimetres in diameter that a woman inserts into her vagina herself. The contraceptive ring is prescribed by a doctor after the woman has undergone a medical examination including her blood pressure.

The contraceptive birth control ring contains a combination of two hormones, oestrogen and progesterone, like the oral contraceptive pill. The ring slowly releases the hormones throughout the vaginal wall to the bloodstream to prevent ovulation. The vaginal ring hormones may also cause a thickening of the cervical mucus and a thinning of the uterine wall.

The woman inserts the contraceptive ring into the vagina on the first day of her menstrual cycle or before the fifth day, and the ring remains in place for three weeks in a row. In this way the ring is again comparable to the combined contraceptive pill, with a ring-free week after three weeks of using the ring.

At the end of the third week, at about the same time of day on the same day as first inserted, the woman should remove and dispose of the vaginal ring, and her withdrawal bleed should start within a few days.

At the end of the fourth week, the woman inserts a new contraceptive ring on the same day as the last one was inserted, even if she is still bleeding, and the process begins again.

Another form of contraception such as condoms should be used for the first seven days when a woman first starts using the birth control ring if she has not used any contraceptive previously, because the hormones do not take effect immediately.

The contraceptive ring is held in place by the vaginal muscles so is unlikely to fall out. However, should this occur, the vaginal ring should be rinsed in cool water and reinserted within three hours. The ring can be left in place while swimming or exercising and during sexual intercourse. When in place, the ring usually cannot be felt.

Possible side effects include irregular menstrual bleeding, nausea, dizziness, headaches, breast tenderness, mood changes and vaginal irritation or discharge.

The birth control ring does not protect against sexually transmitted infections.

Often the choice of using the birth control ring for contraception is a couple’s decision. The woman should be comfortable with inserting the contraceptive ring into her vagina, and her partner should be comfortable with the device being there.

As the woman does not have to remember a daily commitment to contraception, the birth control ring may well suit shift workers or women who travel and cross various time zones. However, she must remember to remove the ring contraception after three weeks and to replace it a week later, or it loses its effectiveness.